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HSRCGeothermal Energy Industry (with COVID-19 & COP26 Impacts) and 60 National Markets – 2022
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Geothermal Energy Industry (with COVID-19 & COP26 Impacts) and 60 National Markets – 2022

The Geothermal industry in 60 countries and more

  • January 2022
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IBM
Amazon
Sandia National Lab
HITACHI
Thales
Smiths Detection
Nuctech
Korea Internet & Security Agency
L3Harris
Huawei
Leidos
NEC
Toshiba
Deloitte
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Description

With 396 pages and 94 tables & figures, the Geothermal Energy Industry (with COVID-19 & COP26 Impacts) and 60 National Markets – 2022 report, together with our new Geothermal Energy Market (with COVID-19 & COP26 Impacts) & Technologies – 2022-2032 report, present the utmost comprehensive review of the global Geothermal Energy market and industry available today. These two reports aim to provide today’s strategic decision-makers with an expert 360-degree, time-sensitive, detailed view of this interconnected market.

Why Buy Geothermal Energy Industry (with COVID-19 & COP26 Impacts) and 60 National Markets – 2022 Report?

 This report includes:

A. Geothermal Industry Analysis:

  • Detailed analysis of the geothermal energy industry
  • The effects of the COP26 & Corona on geothermal energy industry & market outlook
  • 60 national market backgrounds
  • Geothermal energy industry value chain
  • Benefits of geothermal energy industry value chain
  • Geothermal energy industry margin optimization
  • Business opportunities
  • The Biden administration budget
  • Climate-related disasters – 1970-2020
  • Political, post COP26 “Net Zero 2050” issues
  • Global warming mitigation finance
  • Effects on the energy multinationals
  • Global investments in electric grids
  • Coronavirus effects on the geothermal energy market
  • Economical & political aspects of climate change mitigation
  • Global warming mitigation investments by the private sector
  • Greenhouse gas emissions & global warming
  • The 2021 IPCC’s 6th Assessment Report findings

 

B. National Market Background of:

North America

             Canada

             US

Latin America

              Argentina

            Brazil

            Chile

            Colombia

            Ecuador

            Mexico

            Peru

Europe

            Austria

            Belgium

            Bulgaria

            Czech Republic

            Denmark

            Finland

            France

            Germany

            Greece

            Hungary

            Iceland

            Ireland

            Italy

            Lithuania

            The Netherlands

            Norway

            Poland

            Portugal

            Romania

            Russia

            Serbia

            Slovakia

            Slovenia

            Spain

            Sweden

            Switzerland

            The UK

            Ukraine

Middle East & Africa

            Algeria

            Egypt

            Iran

            Israel

            Kenya

            Nigeria

            Saudi Arabia

            South Africa

            Turkey

Asia Pacific

            Australia

            China

            India

            Indonesia

            Japan

            New Zealand

            Philippines

            South Korea

            Thailand

            Vietnam

 

C. Each of the 60 national markets is provided with:

  • Electric power market background          
  • Wind power market background 
  • Hydropower & marine power market background 
  • Solar power market background 
  • Geothermal energy market background    
  • Biomass energy market  background
  • Energy storage market background

 

Table of Contents

Download TOC as PDF

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY INDUSTRY……………………………….. 21

1         Geothermal Energy Industry Value Chain…………………. 21

1.1        Benefits of Geothermal Energy Industry Value Chain.. 21

1.2        Renewable Energy Industry Margin Optimization…….. 22

2         Business Opportunities & Emerging Technologies……. 23

3         Coronavirus Effects on the Geothermal Energy Market. 34

3.1        COVID Impact on Global Energy Demand……………… 34

3.1        COVID Impact on  Renewable Energy Demand………. 35

 

NATIONAL MARKETS BACKGROUND…………………………….. 37

North America……………………………………………………………… 37

4         Canada, Renewable Energy Market Background……….. 37

4.1        Canada Electric Power Market……………………………. 37

4.2        Canada Wind Power Market……………………………….. 38

4.3        Canada Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 38

4.4        Canada Solar Power Market……………………………….. 39

4.5        Canada Geothermal Energy Market……………………… 39

4.6        Canada Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 40

4.7        Canada Energy Storage Market…………………………… 40

5         US, Renewable Energy Market Background………………. 42

5.1        US Electric Power Market…………………………………… 42

5.2        US Wind Power Market……………………………………… 43

5.3        US Hydropower & Marine Power Market……………….. 46

5.4        US Solar Power Market……………………………………… 47

5.5        US Geothermal Energy Market……………………………. 47

5.6        US Biomass Energy Market………………………………… 48

5.7        US Energy Storage Market…………………………………. 49

Latin America………………………………………………………………. 54

6         Argentina, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 54

6.1        Argentina Electric Power Market………………………….. 54

6.2        Argentina Wind Power Market…………………………….. 55

6.3        Argentina Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 56

6.4        Argentina Solar Power Market…………………………….. 56

6.5        Argentina Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 56

6.6        Argentina Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 57

6.7        Argentina Energy Storage Market………………………… 57

7         Brazil, Renewable Energy Market Background………….. 58

7.1        Brazil Electric Power Market……………………………….. 58

7.2        Brazil Wind Power Market………………………………….. 59

7.3        Brazil Hydropower & Marine Power Market……………. 60

7.4        Brazil Solar Power Market………………………………….. 60

7.5        Brazil Geothermal Energy Market………………………… 61

7.6        Brazil Biomass Energy Market…………………………….. 62

7.7        Brazil Energy Storage Market……………………………… 63

8         Chile, Renewable Energy Market Background…………… 64

8.1        Chile Electric Power Market………………………………… 64

8.2        Chile Wind Power Market…………………………………… 65

8.3        Chile Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………….. 65

8.4        Chile Solar Power Market…………………………………… 66

8.5        Chile Geothermal Energy Market…………………………. 67

8.6        Chile Biomass Energy Market……………………………… 68

8.7        Chile Energy Storage Market………………………………. 68

9         Colombia, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 70

9.1        Colombia Electric Power Market………………………….. 70

9.2        Colombia Wind Power Market…………………………….. 71

9.3        Colombia Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 71

9.4        Colombia Solar Power Market…………………………….. 72

9.5        Colombia Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 72

9.6        Colombia Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 73

9.7        Colombia Energy Storage Market………………………… 73

10      Ecuador, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 74

10.1     Ecuador Electric Power Market……………………………. 74

10.2     Ecuador Wind Power Market………………………………. 75

10.3     Ecuador Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 75

10.4     Ecuador Solar Power Market………………………………. 76

10.5     Ecuador Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 76

10.6     Ecuador Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 76

10.7     Ecuador Energy Storage Market………………………….. 77

11      Mexico, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 78

11.1     Mexico Electric Power Market……………………………… 78

11.2     Mexico Wind Power Market………………………………… 79

11.3     Mexico Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 80

11.4     Mexico Solar Power Market………………………………… 81

11.5     Mexico Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 81

11.6     Mexico Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 82

11.7     Mexico Energy Storage Market……………………………. 83

12      Peru, Renewable Energy Market Background……………. 84

12.1     Peru Electric Power Market………………………………… 84

12.2     Peru Wind Power Market…………………………………… 85

12.3     Peru Hydropower & Marine Power Market……………… 85

12.4     Peru Solar Power Market…………………………………… 86

12.5     Peru Geothermal Energy Market…………………………. 86

12.6     Peru Biomass Energy Market……………………………… 86

12.7     Peru Energy Storage Market………………………………. 87

Europe……………………………………………………………………….. 88

13      Austria, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 88

13.1     Austria Electric Power Market……………………………… 88

13.2     Austria Wind Power Market………………………………… 88

13.3     Austria Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 89

13.4     Austria Solar Power Market………………………………… 89

13.5     Austria Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 90

13.6     Austria Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 90

13.7     Austria Energy Storage Market……………………………. 91

14      Belgium, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 92

14.1     Belgium Electric Power Market……………………………. 92

14.2     Belgium Wind Power Market………………………………. 93

14.3     Belgium Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 93

14.4     Belgium Solar Power Market………………………………. 93

14.5     Belgium Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 93

14.6     Belgium Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 94

14.7     Belgium Energy Storage Market………………………….. 94

15      Bulgaria, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 95

15.1     Bulgaria Electric Power Market……………………………. 95

15.2     Bulgaria Wind Power Market………………………………. 96

15.3     Bulgaria Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 96

15.4     Bulgaria Solar Power Market………………………………. 97

15.5     Bulgaria Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 97

15.6     Bulgaria Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 97

15.7     Bulgaria Energy Storage Market………………………….. 98

16      Czech Republic, Renewable Energy Market Background 99

16.1     Czech Republic Electric Power Market………………….. 99

16.2     Czech Republic Wind Power Market…………………… 100

16.3     Czech Republic Hydropower & Marine Power Market 100

16.4     Czech Republic Solar Power Market…………………… 100

16.5     Czech Republic Geothermal Energy Market…………. 101

16.6     Czech Republic Biomass Energy Market……………… 101

16.7     Czech Republic Energy Storage Market………………. 102

17      Denmark, Renewable Energy Market Background……. 104

17.1     Denmark Electric Power Market…………………………. 104

17.2     Denmark Wind Power Market……………………………. 104

17.3     Denmark Hydropower & Marine Power Market……… 105

17.4     Denmark Solar Power Market……………………………. 105

17.5     Denmark Geothermal Energy Market………………….. 105

17.5.1          Denmark Geothermal Energy Market without Greenland……………………………………………….. 105

17.5.2          Greenland……………………………………………….. 106

17.6     Denmark Biomass Energy Market………………………. 106

17.7     Denmark Energy Storage Market……………………….. 106

18      Finland, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 107

18.1     Finland Electric Power Market…………………………… 107

18.2     Finland Wind Power Market………………………………. 108

18.3     Finland Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 108

18.4     Finland Solar Power Market………………………………. 108

18.5     Finland Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 108

18.6     Finland Biomass Energy Market………………………… 109

18.7     Finland Energy Storage Market…………………………. 109

19      France, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 111

19.1     France Electric Power Market……………………………. 111

19.2     France Wind Power Market………………………………. 112

19.3     France Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 112

19.4     France Solar Power Market………………………………. 113

19.5     France Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 113

19.6     France Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 114

19.7     France Energy Storage Market………………………….. 114

20      Germany, Renewable Energy Market Background……. 116

20.1     Germany Long Term Renewable Energy Policy…….. 116

20.2     Germany Electric Power Market…………………………. 117

20.2.1          German Government Energy Strategy…………… 119

20.3     Germany Wind Power Market……………………………. 120

20.3.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 120

20.3.2          Onshore wind power………………………………….. 120

20.3.3          Offshore wind power………………………………….. 121

20.4     Germany Hydropower & Marine Power Market……… 122

20.5     Germany Solar Power Market……………………………. 122

20.6     Germany Geothermal Energy Market………………….. 124

20.7     Germany Biomass Energy Market………………………. 125

20.8     Germany Energy Storage Market……………………….. 125

21      Greece, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 126

21.1     Greece Electric Power Market…………………………… 126

21.2     Greece Wind Power Market………………………………. 126

21.3     Greece Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 127

21.4     Greece Solar Power Market………………………………. 127

21.5     Greece Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 127

21.6     Greece Biomass Energy Market………………………… 128

21.7     Greece Energy Storage Market…………………………. 129

22      Hungary, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 130

22.1     Hungary Electric Power Market………………………….. 130

22.2     Hungary Wind Power Market…………………………….. 130

22.3     Hungary Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 130

22.4     Hungary Solar Power Market…………………………….. 131

22.5     Hungary Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 132

22.6     Hungary Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 132

22.7     Hungary Energy Storage Market………………………… 133

23      Iceland, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 134

23.1     Iceland Electric Power Market……………………………. 134

23.2     Iceland Wind Power Market………………………………. 134

23.3     Iceland Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 135

23.4     Iceland Solar Power Market………………………………. 135

23.5     Iceland Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 135

23.6     Iceland Energy Storage Market………………………….. 136

24      Ireland, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 137

24.1     Ireland Electric Power Market……………………………. 137

24.2     Ireland Wind Power Market………………………………. 139

24.3     Ireland Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 140

24.4     Ireland Solar Power Market………………………………. 140

24.5     Ireland Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 140

24.6     Ireland Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 141

24.7     Irland Energy Storage Market……………………………. 141

25      Italy, Renewable Energy Market Background…………… 142

25.1     Italy Electric Power Market……………………………….. 142

25.2     Italy Wind Power Market…………………………………… 143

25.3     Italy Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………….. 143

25.4     Italy Solar Power Market………………………………….. 144

25.5     Italy Geothermal Energy Market…………………………. 145

25.6     Italy Biomass Energy Market…………………………….. 145

25.7     Italy Energy Storage Market……………………………… 145

26      Lithuania, Renewable Energy Market Background……. 147

26.1     Lithuania Electric Power Market…………………………. 147

26.2     Lithuania Wind Power Market……………………………. 148

26.3     Lithuania Hydropower & Marine Power Market……… 149

26.4     Lithuania Solar Power Market……………………………. 149

26.5     Lithuania Geothermal Energy Market………………….. 150

26.6     Lithuania Biomass Energy Market………………………. 150

26.7     Lithuania Energy Storage Market……………………….. 151

27      The Netherlands, Renewable Energy Market Background 152

27.1     Netherlands Electric Power Market…………………….. 152

27.2     Netherlands Wind Power Market………………………… 153

27.3     Netherlands Hydropower & Marine Power Market….. 154

27.4     Netherlands Solar Power Market……………………….. 154

27.5     Netherlands Geothermal Energy Market………………. 154

27.6     Netherlands Biomass Energy Market………………….. 155

27.7     Netherlands Energy Storage Market…………………… 155

28      Norway, Renewable Energy Market Background……… 157

28.1     Norway Electric Power Market…………………………… 157

28.2     Norway Wind Power Market……………………………… 157

28.3     Norway Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 158

28.4     Norway Solar Power Market……………………………… 159

28.5     Norway Geothermal Energy Market……………………. 159

28.6     Norway Biomass Energy Market………………………… 160

28.7     Norway Energy Storage Market…………………………. 160

29      Poland, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 161

29.1     Poland Electric Power Market……………………………. 161

29.2     Poland Wind Power Market………………………………. 162

29.3     Poland Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 162

29.4     Poland Solar Power Market………………………………. 162

29.5     Poland Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 163

29.6     Poland Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 163

29.7     Poland Energy Storage Market………………………….. 164

30      Portugal, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 165

30.1     Portugal Electric Power Market………………………….. 165

30.2     Portugal Wind Power Market…………………………….. 166

30.3     Portugal Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 166

30.4     Portugal Solar Power Market…………………………….. 167

30.5     Portugal Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 167

30.6     Portugal Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 167

30.7     Portugal Energy Storage Market………………………… 168

31      Romania, Renewable Energy Market Background……. 169

31.1     Romania Electric Power Market…………………………. 169

31.2     Romania Wind Power Market……………………………. 170

31.3     Romania Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 170

31.4     Romania Solar Power Market……………………………. 170

31.5     Romania Geothermal Energy Market………………….. 170

31.6     Romania Biomass Energy Market………………………. 171

31.7     Romania Energy Storage Market……………………….. 171

32      Russia, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 172

32.1     Russia Electric Power Market……………………………. 172

32.2     Russia Wind Power Market………………………………. 173

32.3     Russia Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 173

32.4     Russia Solar Power Market………………………………. 174

32.5     Russia Geothermal Energy Market……………………… 174

32.6     Russia Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 174

32.7     Russia Energy Storage Market………………………….. 175

33      Serbia, Renewable Energy Market Background……….. 176

33.1     Serbia Electric Power Market…………………………….. 176

33.2     Serbia Wind Power Market……………………………….. 176

33.3     Serbia Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 177

33.4     Serbia Solar Power Market……………………………….. 177

33.5     Serbia Geothermal Energy Market……………………… 177

33.6     Serbia Biomass Energy Market………………………….. 178

33.7     Sebia Energy Storage Market……………………………. 179

34      Slovakia, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 180

34.1     Slovakia Electric Power Market………………………….. 180

34.2     Slovakia Wind Power Market…………………………….. 181

34.3     Slovakia Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 181

34.4     Slovakia Solar Power Market…………………………….. 181

34.5     Slovakia Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 181

34.6     Slovakia Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 182

34.7     Slovakia Energy Storage Market………………………… 182

35      Slovenia, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 183

35.1     Slovenia Electric Power Market………………………….. 183

35.2     Slovenia Wind Power Market…………………………….. 184

35.3     Slovenia Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 184

35.4     Slovenia Solar Power Market…………………………….. 185

35.5     Slovenia Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 185

35.6     Slovenia Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 186

35.7     Slovenia Energy Storage Market………………………… 186

36      Spain, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 188

36.1     Spain Electric Power Market……………………………… 188

36.2     Spain Wind Power Market………………………………… 188

36.3     Spain Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 189

36.4     Spain Solar Power Market………………………………… 189

36.5     Spain Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 189

36.6     Spain Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 190

36.7     Spain Energy Storage Market……………………………. 190

37      Sweden, Renewable Energy Market Background……… 192

37.1     Sweden Electric Power Market………………………….. 192

37.2     Sweden Wind Power Market……………………………… 192

37.3     Sweden Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 193

37.4     Sweden Solar Power Market…………………………….. 193

37.5     Sweden Geothermal Energy Market……………………. 193

37.6     Sweden Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 195

37.7     Sweden Energy Storage Market………………………… 195

38      Switzerland, Renewable Energy Market Background… 196

38.1     Switzerland Electric Power Market……………………… 196

38.2     Switzerland Wind Power Market………………………… 197

38.3     Switzerland Hydropower & Marine Power Market…… 197

38.4     Switzerland Solar Power Market………………………… 197

38.5     Switzerland Geothermal Energy Market………………. 198

38.6     Switzerland Biomass Energy Market…………………… 198

38.7     Switzerland Energy Storage Market……………………. 199

39      The UK, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 200

39.1     The UK Electric Power Market…………………………… 200

39.2     The UK Wind Power Market……………………………… 201

39.3     The UK Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 201

39.4     The UK Solar Power Market……………………………… 202

39.5     The UK Geothermal Energy Market……………………. 203

39.6     The UK Biomass Energy Market………………………… 203

39.7     The UK Energy Storage Market…………………………. 204

40      Ukraine, Renewable Energy Market Background……… 205

40.1     Ukraine Electric Power Market…………………………… 205

40.2     Ukraine Wind Power Market……………………………… 206

40.3     Ukraine Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 206

40.4     Ukraine Solar Power Market……………………………… 207

40.5     Ukraine Geothermal Energy Market……………………. 207

40.6     Ukraine Biomass Energy Market………………………… 207

40.7     Ukraine Energy Storage Market…………………………. 207

Middle East & Africa……………………………………………………. 208

41      Algeria, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 208

41.1     Algeria Electric Power Market……………………………. 208

41.2     Algeria Wind Power Market………………………………. 209

41.3     Algeria Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 209

41.4     Algeria Solar Power Market………………………………. 209

41.5     Algeria Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 209

41.6     Algeria Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 209

41.7     Algeria Energy Storage Market………………………….. 210

42      Egypt, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 211

42.1     Egypt Electric Power Market……………………………… 211

42.2     Egypt Wind Power Market………………………………… 212

42.3     Egypt Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 212

42.4     Egypt Solar Power Market………………………………… 212

42.5     Egypt Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 213

42.6     Egypt Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 213

42.7     Egypt Energy Storage Market……………………………. 213

43      Iran, Renewable Energy Market Background…………… 214

43.1     Iran Electric Power Market………………………………… 214

43.2     Iran Wind Power Market…………………………………… 214

43.3     Iran Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………….. 215

43.4     Iran Solar Power Market…………………………………… 215

43.5     Iran Geothermal Energy Market…………………………. 216

43.6     Iran Biomass Energy Market……………………………… 216

43.7     Iran Energy Storage Market………………………………. 216

44      Israel, Renewable Energy Market Background…………. 217

44.1     Israel Electric Power Market……………………………… 217

44.2     Israel Wind Power Market…………………………………. 218

44.3     Israel Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………… 218

44.4     Israel Solar Power Market………………………………… 218

44.5     Israel Geothermal Energy Market……………………….. 219

44.6     Israel Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 219

44.7     Israel Energy Storage Market……………………………. 219

45      Kenya, Renewable Energy Market Background……….. 221

45.1     Kenya Electric Power Market…………………………….. 221

45.2     Kenya Wind Power Market……………………………….. 221

45.3     Kenya Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 222

45.4     Kenya Solar Power Market……………………………….. 222

45.5     Kenya Geothermal Energy Market……………………… 222

45.6     Kenya Biomass Energy Market………………………….. 223

45.7     Kenya Energy Storage Market…………………………… 223

46      Nigeria, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 224

46.1     Nigeria Electric Power Market……………………………. 224

46.2     Nigeria Wind Power Market………………………………. 225

46.3     Nigeria Hydropower & Marine Power Market………… 225

46.4     Nigeria Solar Power Market………………………………. 225

46.5     Nigeria Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 226

46.6     Nigeria Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 226

46.7     Nigeria Energy Storage Market………………………….. 226

47      Saudi Arabia, Renewable Energy Market Background. 227

47.1     Saudi Arabia Electric Power Market……………………. 227

47.2     Saudi Arabia Wind Power Market……………………….. 229

47.3     Saudi Arabia Hydropower & Marine Power Market…. 229

47.4     Saudi Arabia Solar Power Market………………………. 229

47.5     Saudi Arabia Geothermal Energy Market……………… 229

47.6     Saudi Arabia Biomass Energy Market…………………. 230

47.7     Saudi Energy Storage Market……………………………. 230

48      South Africa, Renewable Energy Market Background.. 232

48.1     South Africa Electric Power Market…………………….. 232

48.2     South Africa Wind Power Market……………………….. 233

48.3     South Africa Hydropower & Marine Power Market….. 233

48.4     South Africa Solar Power Market……………………….. 233

48.5     South Africa Geothermal Energy Market………………. 234

48.6     South Africa Biomass Energy Market………………….. 234

48.7     South Africa Energy Storage Market…………………… 234

49      Turkey, Renewable Energy Market Background………. 236

49.1     Turkey Electric Power Market……………………………. 236

49.2     Turkey Wind Power Market………………………………. 237

49.3     Turkey Hydropower & Marine Power Market…………. 237

49.4     Turkey Solar Power Market………………………………. 238

49.5     Turkey Geothermal Energy Market…………………….. 238

49.6     Turkey Biomass Energy Market…………………………. 239

49.7     Turkey Energy Storage Market………………………….. 239

Asia Pacific……………………………………………………………….. 240

50      Australia, Renewable Energy Market Background……. 240

50.1     Australia Electric Power Market…………………………. 240

50.2     Australia Wind Power Market…………………………….. 240

50.3     Australia Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 241

50.4     Australia Solar Power Market…………………………….. 241

50.5     Australia Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 241

50.6     Australia Biomass Energy Market………………………. 242

50.7     Australia Energy Storage Market……………………….. 242

51      China, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 243

51.1     China Electric Power Market……………………………… 243

51.2     China Wind Power Market………………………………… 245

51.3     China Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 245

51.4     China Solar Power Market………………………………… 246

51.5     China Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 247

51.6     China Biomass Energy Market…………………………… 248

51.7     China Energy Storage Market……………………………. 248

52      India, Renewable Energy Market Background………….. 249

52.1     India Electric Power Market………………………………. 249

52.2     India Wind Power Market…………………………………. 250

52.3     India Hydropower & Marine Power Market……………. 251

52.4     India Solar Power Market…………………………………. 251

52.5     India Geothermal Energy Market……………………….. 252

52.6     India Biomass Energy Market……………………………. 252

52.7     India Energy Storage Market…………………………….. 253

53      Indonesia, Renewable Energy Market Background…… 254

53.1     Indonesia Electric Power Market………………………… 254

53.2     Indonesia Wind Power Market…………………………… 255

53.3     Indonesia Hydropower & Marine Power Market…….. 255

53.4     Indonesia Solar Power Market…………………………… 256

53.5     Indonesia Geothermal Energy Market…………………. 256

53.6     Indonesia Biomass Energy Market……………………… 257

53.7     Indonesia Energy Storage Market………………………. 258

54      Japan, Renewable Energy Market Background………… 259

54.1     Japan Electric Power Market…………………………….. 259

54.2     Japan Wind Power Market………………………………… 260

54.3     Japan Hydropower & Marine Power Market………….. 260

54.4     Japan Solar Power Market……………………………….. 261

54.5     Japan Geothermal Energy Market………………………. 261

54.6     Japan Biomass Energy Market………………………….. 262

54.7     Japan Energy Storage Market…………………………… 262

55      New Zealand, Renewable Energy Market Background. 264

55.1     New Zealand Electric Power Market……………………. 264

55.2     New Zealand Wind Power Market………………………. 264

55.3     New Zealand Hydropower & Marine Power Market… 265

55.4     New Zealand Solar Power Market………………………. 265

55.5     New Zealand Geothermal Energy Market…………….. 265

55.6     New Zealand Biomass Energy Market…………………. 266

55.7     New Zealand Energy Storage Market………………….. 266

56      Philippines, Renewable Energy Market Background…. 268

56.1     Philippines Electric Power Market………………………. 268

56.2     Philippines Wind Power Market………………………….. 269

56.3     Philippines Hydropower & Marine Power Market……. 269

56.4     Philippines Solar Energy Market………………………… 269

56.5     Philippines Geothermal Energy Market………………… 269

56.6     Philippines Biomass Energy Market……………………. 270

56.7     Philippines Energy Storage Market…………………….. 270

57      South Korea, Renewable Energy Market Background.. 271

57.1     South Korea Electric Power Market…………………….. 271

57.2     South Korea Wind Power Market……………………….. 272

57.3     South Korea Hydropower & Marine Power Market…. 272

57.4     South Korea Solar Power Market……………………….. 272

57.5     South Korea Geothermal Energy Market……………… 273

57.6     South Korea Biomass Energy Market………………….. 273

57.7     South Korea Energy Storage Market…………………… 274

58      Thailand, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 275

58.1     Thailand Electric Power Market………………………….. 275

58.2     Thailand Wind Power Market…………………………….. 276

58.3     Thailand Hydropower & Marine Power Market………. 276

58.4     Thailand Solar Power Market…………………………….. 276

58.5     Thailand Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 277

58.6     Thailand Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 277

58.7     Thailand Energy Storage Market………………………… 277

59      Vietnam, Renewable Energy Market Background…….. 279

59.1     Vietnam Electric Power Market………………………….. 279

59.2     Vietnam Wind Power Market…………………………….. 279

59.3     Vietnam Hydropower & Marine Power Market……….. 280

59.4     Vietnam Solar Power Market…………………………….. 280

59.5     Vietnam Geothermal Energy Market…………………… 281

59.6     Vietnam Biomass Energy Market……………………….. 281

59.7     Vietnam Energy Storage Market………………………… 281

 

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY MARKET BACKGROUND………….. 283

60      Economical & Political Aspects Climate Change Mitigation…………………………………………………………… 283

61      Effects on the Energy Multinationals……………………… 286

61.1     Introduction…………………………………………………… 286

61.2     Carbon Pricing……………………………………………….. 287

61.3     The North Sea Transition Deal…………………………… 290

61.4     Regulatory and Policy Trends in the U.S. Oil and Gas Sector………………………………………………………….. 290

61.5     Storage Investment Tax Credit………………………….. 292

61.6     Additional Funding for Utility-Scale Energy Storage… 293

62      Global Investments in Electric Grids………………………. 295

62.1     Introduction…………………………………………………… 295

62.2     Challenge to Grid Modernization………………………… 296

62.3     Four-Step Approach Grid Modernization Requirements.                                                                               298

62.3.1          Priorities………………………………………………….. 298

62.3.2          Foundational Investments…………………………… 299

62.3.3          Physical-Device Investments……………………….. 299

62.3.4          The Plan’s Value………………………………………. 300

62.4     Implications for Utilities…………………………………….. 300

63      The Biden Administration Green Infrastructure Budget 304

63.1     Introduction…………………………………………………… 304

63.2     Energy Efficiency……………………………………………. 306

63.3     Renewable Power…………………………………………… 306

63.4     Sustainable Transportation……………………………….. 307

64      Global Warming Mitigation Investments by The Private Sector………………………………………………………………… 308

64.1     Private Sector Warming Mitigation: Global Investments Size…………………………………………………………….. 308

64.2      Traded Renewable Energy Companies……………….. 312

65      Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Global Warming……….. 315

65.1     Carbon Cycle & Carbon Sinks…………………………… 315

65.2     Global Carbon Dioxide Budget…………………………… 316

65.3     Greenhouse Gas Emmisions, by Source……………… 318

66      Global Warming Mitigation Finance……………………….. 324

66.1     Global Warming Mitigation Finance Stakeholders….. 324

66.2     Global Warming Investments. Venture Capital………. 325

66.3     Traded Green Energy Companies………………………. 328

67      The IPCC’s 6th Assessment 2021 Report Findings…… 330

67.1     Introduction…………………………………………………… 330

67.2     IPCC-6: Key Findings………………………………………. 330

67.3     Current State of Climate…………………………………… 331

68      Climate Related Disasters – 1970-2020……………………. 337

69      Political Issues of “Net Zero 2050”…………………………. 340

69.1     Policy Dispute………………………………………………… 340

69.2     Multilateral Policy Disputes……………………………….. 341

69.3     National and Other Disputes……………………………… 342

69.4     Non-Governmental Bodies……………………………….. 343

70      Negative Emissions Technologies & Markets………… 348

70.1     Introduction………………………………………………….. 348

70.2     Six CO2 Removal and Sequestration Technologies.. 351

70.3     Coastal Blue Carbon……………………………………….. 351

70.3.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 351

70.3.2          Coastal Blue Carbon Analysis……………………… 351

70.3.3          Conclusions…………………………………………….. 353

70.4     Terrestrial  Carbon  Removal  and  Sequestration……… 354

70.4.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 354

70.4.2          Terrestrial Carbon Removal And Sequestration  Technology Assessment…………………………….. 354

70.4.3          Introduction……………………………………………… 354

70.4.4          Forest Practices……………………………………….. 356

70.4.5          Reforestation……………………………………………. 357

70.4.6          Wood & Preservation…………………………………. 359

70.4.7          Traditional Cropland and Grassland………………. 359

70.4.8          Enhanced Cropping…………………………………… 360

70.4.9          Organic Matter…………………………………………. 361

70.4.10       Agroforestry…………………………………………….. 362

70.4.11       Rewetting of Organic Soils………………………….. 362

70.4.12       Biochar Modification…………………………………… 363

70.5     Bioenergy With Carbon Capture & Sequestration…… 365

70.5.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 365

70.5.2          Bioenergy With Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technology Assessment………………………………. 365

70.6      Direct Air Capture……………………………………………. 368

70.6.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 368

70.6.2           Direct Air Capture Technology Assessment…….. 368

70.7     Carbon Mineralization……………………………………… 371

70.7.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 371

70.7.2          Carbon Mineralization Technology Assessment.. 371

70.7.3          Conclusions…………………………………………….. 372

70.8     Geologic Sequestration……………………………………. 373

70.8.1          Introduction……………………………………………… 373

70.8.2          Technology Assessment…………………………….. 373

70.8.3          Concluding Remarks………………………………….. 374

70.8.4          CO2 Removal & Sequestration Economy……….. 375

70.8.5          Land Restraint………………………………………….. 379

70.8.6          Environmental Restraints……………………………. 379

70.8.7          Energy Requirements………………………………… 379

 

APPENDICES…………………………………………………………….. 381

71      Appendix A: Glossary………………………………………….. 381

72      Appendix B: Abbreviations…………………………………… 398

73      Research Methodology………………………………………… 403

73.1     Report Structure…………………………………………….. 403

73.2     Research Methodology……………………………………. 403

73.3     For Whom is this Report?…………………………………. 404

74      Disclaimer and Copyright……………………………………… 405

Tables

Table 1 – List Of Publicly Traded Renewable Energy Companies…… 312

Figures

Figure 1 – Geothermal Energy Value Chain………………………………… 21

Figure 2 – The COVID-19 Years CO-2 Emissions………………………… 34

Figure 3 – Canada Electricity Generation by Energy Source [%], 2018 38

Figure 4 – U.S. electricity generation by major energy source, 1950-2020………………………………………………………………… 43

Figure 5 – U.S. Large Scale Battery Storage Capacity by Region (2010-2019)……………………………………………………………….. 51

Figure 6 – Total Installed Cost of Large Scale Battery Storage Capacity by Year (2010-2019)……………………………………………. 52

Figure 7 – USA Large Scale Battery Storage Capacity Additions [ MW] – 2003-2023 (Planned)…………………………………………… 53

Figure 8 – Cumulative Capacity Of Large Scale Battery Storage [ MW]-2017-2023…………………………………………………………. 53

Figure 9 – Electricity Generation In Argentina In 2020, By Type Of Fuel* (In Terawatt Hours)……………………………………………… 54

Figure 10 – Brazil Power Generation Supply, 2017………………………. 59

Figure 11 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Chile 1990-2020… 64

Figure 12 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)……………. 70

Figure 13 – Ecuador Power Generation, 2020……………………………… 74

Figure 14 – Mexico Electricity Generation by Technology (October 2020)                                                                                    78

Figure 15 – Distribution of Electricity Generation In Peru In 2020, By Source……………………………………………………………… 84

Figure 16 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Austria 1990-2019 88

Figure 17 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Belgium 1990-2019                                                                                    92

Figure 18 – Bulgaria Installed Energy Capacity……………………………. 95

Figure 19 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Czech Republic 1990-2019…………………………………………………………. 99

Figure 20 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Denmark 1990-2019                                                                                  104

Figure 21 – Electricity Generation By Energy Source, Finland, 2000-2019………………………………………………………………. 107

Figure 22 – France Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source 1990-2019 111

Figure 23 -The German Renewable Energy use & Reduced Energy Consumption Scenario -2005-2050……………………….. 116

Figure 24 – Germany Electricity Generation Per Week 22 – 2021 by  Energy Generation Mode……………………………………. 118

Figure 25 – Power Generation Capacity in Germany By Technology – 2002-2020……………………………………………………….. 119

Figure 26 – German Solar Power Capacity – 2009-2019……………… 123

Figure 27 – Sources of Large-Scale Energy Capacity [MW] Installed in Greece as of June 2020*…………………………………….. 126

Figure 28 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Hungary 1990-2019                                                                                  130

Figure 29 – Electricity Production by Source, Iceland, 2000-2019…… 134

Figure 30 – Total Final Consumption By Fuel in Ireland, 2005-2019.. 137

Figure 31 – Total Final Consumption By Sector in Ireland, 2005-2019                                                                                  138

Figure 32 – Primary Energy By Mode And Fuel in Ireland, 2019…….. 138

Figure 33 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Italy 1990-2019… 142

Figure 34 – Lithuania’s Energy System By Fuel And Sector, 2019….. 147

Figure 35 – Lithuania’s Total Final Consumption By Source And Sector, 2019………………………………………………………………. 148

Figure 36 – Distribution of Electricity Generation In The Netherlands In 2020, By Source……………………………………………….. 152

Figure 37 – National Electricity Generation By Energy Source, Norway, in 2019……………………………………………………………. 157

Figure 38 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Poland 1990-2019                                                                                  161

Figure 39 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Portugal 1990-2019                                                                                  165

Figure 40 – Romania Consumption Trends By Energy Source (Mtoe)                                                                                  169

Figure 41 – Russia Consumption Trends by Energy Source (Mtoe)… 172

Figure 42 – Serbian Energy Distribution, 2018…………………………… 176

Figure 43 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Slovak Republic 1990-2020……………………………………………………….. 180

Figure 44 – Energy Balance of Slovenia, 2020…………………………… 183

Figure 45 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Spain 1990-2020 188

Figure 46 – Sweden Energy Consumption, 1800-2020………………… 192

Figure 47 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Switzerland 1990-2020………………………………………………………………. 196

Figure 48 – The UK Inland Energy Consumption, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source………………………………………………….. 200

Figure 49 – The UK Electricity Generation, 1990 and 2020 by Energy Source……………………………………………………………. 200

Figure 50 – Solar PV Installed by Quarter in UK…………………………. 203

Figure 51 – Consumption Trends By Energy Source in Ukraine (Mtoe)                                                                                  205

Figure 52 – Installed Energy Capacity of Algeria, 2019 vs. Projected 2028………………………………………………………………. 208

Figure 53 – Consumption Trends By Energy Source (Mtoe)………….. 211

Figure 54 – Iran’s Electricity Generation by Fuel, 2019………………… 214

Figure 55 – Consumption Trends by Energy Source in Israel (Mtoe). 217

Figure 56 – Kenya Energy Mix by Type; Installed, 2020……………….. 221

Figure 57 – Nigeria Total Energy Consumption………………………….. 224

Figure 58 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Saudi Arabia, 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 228

Figure 59 – South Africa Electricity Consumption Breakdown by Sector (2020, %)………………………………………………………… 232

Figure 60 – Electricity Generation in Turkey from 2019 to 2020, by Fuel                                                                                  236

Figure 61 – Australian Electricity Generation – Fuel Mix, 1994-2020.. 240

Figure 62 –  Electric Power Generation in China from 2011 to 2020, by Source……………………………………………………………. 243

Figure 63 – Consumption of Energy Resources in India in Petajoules in 2019-20………………………………………………………….. 249

Figure 64 – Electricity Mix in India, January-December 2020…………. 250

Figure 65 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, Indonesia, 1990-2019………………………………………………………………. 254

Figure 66 – Share of Renewables and Nuclear Power in Japan’s Electricity Supply by Month (2020)………………………… 259

Figure 67 – Japan Electricity Generation by Energy Source [GW], 2019                                                                                  260

Figure 68 – Total Energy Supply (TES) by Source, New Zealand, 1990-2020………………………………………………………………. 264

Figure 69 – 2020 Philippines Power Supply Highlights…………………. 268

Figure 70 – South Korea Electricity Generation Capacity by Fuel [%], 2018………………………………………………………………. 271

Figure 71 – Power Generation by Fuel in Thailand – 2010, 2020……. 275

Figure 72 – Installed Generating Capacity in Vietnam – 2021-2020 [GW]                                                                                  279

Figure 73 – Carbon Tax by Country – 2020……………………………….. 287

Figure 74 – Invested [$T] Needed: By Decarbonation Sectors (Left) and by Regions (Right)…………………………………………….. 308

Figure 75 – Global Carbon Dioxide Budget. [G Ton/annum]………….. 316

Figure 76 – The Global Carbon Cycle………………………………………. 318

Figure 77 – Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Primary Sources. 318

Figure 78 – Global Warming Mitigation Financing: Stakeholders……. 324

Figure 80 – The IPPC 2009,2014 and 2021 Global warming Assessments per doubling of atmospheric CO-2………. 333

Figure 81 – Contribution to 2010-2020 Warming VS. Past century….. 334

Figure 82 -Human Contribution to Climate Change Being Felt Most Acutely & the Confidence Level in Human Contribution to Change. By Geography………………………………………. 335

Figure 83 – Global Warming vs. number of climate related disasters -1970-2032……………………………………………………….. 337

Figure 84 – Projected Increase in Extreme Weather Events vs. Global Warming Rate………………………………………………….. 338

Figure 85 – Global Warming Vs. Number of Deaths & Economic Losses [$B] -1970-2020………………………………………………… 339

Figure 86- Fossil Energy Divestment Size [$B] & Number of Committed Institutions……………………………………………………….. 345

Figure 87 – The Role Of Negative Emissions Technologies In Reaching Net Zero Emissions Scenario……………………………….. 349

Figure 88 – Leading CO2 Removal and Sequestration Technologies 351

Figure 89 – Changes in carbon stock from afforestation……………….. 358

Figure 90 – Simulated Time Series of Global Land Use For Business as Usual (BAU), Afforestation (AFF), BECCS, and AFF + BECCS…………………………………………………………… 364

Figure 91 – Biomass Energy Carbon Dioxide Removal And Sequestration Process……………………………………….. 366

Figure 92 – Standard Biomass Energy-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal Pathways………………………………………………………… 367

Figure 93 – Terrestrial and Geological Sequestration Of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Heavy Industry,…………………………… 377

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